Skip to Main Content

Chicago Style In-Text Citations

Chicago Style In-Text Citations

Chicago Style In-Text Citations

Citations are marked with a superscript number (1) and are numbered consecutively throughout the text. The superscript number should be placed immediately after the cited material, following all punctuation marks except the dash (--), and also placed outside of parentheses. All following citations should be followed by sequential superscript numbers (2, 3, etc.)  The first line of each footnote is indented the same as a paragraph and begins with a number followed by a period and a single space before the first word of the entry.  Subsequent lines are flush with the left margin. Notes are typed single-spaced, with a double space between notes. Endnotes, though, are not indented and are flush with the margin.  The following examples show a footnote number in the text of a paper and the corresponding foot note.

In Text

A Union soldier, Jacob Thomas, claimed to have seen Forrest order the killing, but when asked to describe the six-foot-two general, he called him "a little bit of a man."1

Footnote or Endnote:

1. Brian Steel Wills, A Battle from the Start: The Life of Nathan Bedford Forrest (New York: HarperCollins, 1992), 187.  


One Author

            1. Hayden Herrera, Frida: A Biography of Frida Kahlo (New York: Harper and Row, 1983), 356.

More Than One Author (authors’ names appear in the order they appear on title page of book)

            2. Arthur Weinberg and Lila Weinberg, Clarence Darrow: A Sentimental Rebel   (New York: Putnam’s Sons, 1980), 88.

Unknown Author

            3. The New York Times Atlas of the World (New York: New York Times Books, 1980), 67.

Edited, Translated, or Compiled Works -The name of editor, translator, or compiler is followed by an abbreviation (ed., trans., or comp, etc.)

            4. C. Vann Woodward, ed., Mary Chesnut’s Civil War (New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press, 1981), 214.

Selection in an Anthology, or a Chapter in a Book, with an Editor

            5. Mary Gordon, “The Parable of the Cave,” in The Writer on Her Work, ed. Janet Sternberg (New York: W.W. Norton, 1980), 30.

Edition Other Than the First

            6. Alfred H. Kelly, Winfred A. Harbison, and Herman Belz, The American Constitution: Its Origins and Development, 6th ed. (New York: W.W. Norton, 1983), 187.

Multivolume Work

            7. Philip S. Foner and Ronald L. Lewis, eds., The Black Worker, vol. 3 (Philadelphia: W.P. Lippincott, 1980), 134.



Article in a Journal Paginated by Number

            8. Linda Hutcheon, “She Do the President in Different Voices,” PMLA 116 (2001): 518.

Article in a Journal Paginated by Issue

            9. John Lofty, “The Politics of Modernism’s Funeral,” Journal of Political and Social Theory 6, no. 3 (1987): 89.

Article in a Magazine

            10. Claudia Kalb, “Operating on Accuracy,” Newsweek, 30 September 2002, 59.

Article in a Newspaper

            11. Dennis Kelly, “A Financial Report Card for Colleges,” USA Today, 5 July 1994, sec. D, p. 1.


A Second or Later Reference to a Previously Cited Source

Previously Mentioned Author

            12. Kelly, 1.

Previously Mentioned Author of More Than One Work

            13.  Herrera, Frida, 356.

The use of Ibid and Op. Cit. is part of an older Chicago style and is no longer prominent.  It is suggested that you consult your instructor as to the use of these citation tools, but instructions for their use are included here.  The abbreviation “Ibid” is used in footnote/endnote notation to indicate information taken from a single work cited in the immediately preceding footnote or endnote in order to avoid repetition of bibliographic information. The abbreviation “Op. Cit.” is used with the author's last name and page number to denote a reference to a work previously cited in your paper.  It differs from “Ibid” in that it refers to a work that does not immediately follow the one just cited. If a different page number is referenced from the initial entry, then a page number should also be referenced in the “Ibid” entry, separated by a comma.

            14. Ibid.

            15. Gordon, op. cit. 32.           

Electronic Resources

Electronic Sources

Internet Documents

            16. S. A. Moulthrop, “Traveling in the Breakdown Lane: A Principle of Resistance for Hypertext,” University of Baltimore Computer Science Department Online, May 1999, ygcla/sam/essays/pre_breakdown.html.

(note: to break apart long web pages, never break in the middle of a word, letter or number cluster, always break after punctuation marks)

Online Internet Journal Article

            17. E. W. Gorr and Z.W. Gorr, “The Rhetoric of Video Games,” Rhetorical Theory Quarterly (1998), (accessed 23 February 1998).

E-mail Correspondence

            18. Jason Adams, “Re: Question about Chicago style documentation,” personal email message, August 8, 2005.